A Gendered Analysis of Resource Allocation to Livestock Activities by Communal Farmers in South Africa

Zimbini Mdlulwa, Cynthia Boitumelo Ngwane


This paper investigates the gender dynamics of allocating financial resources to livestock activities by communal farmers in Ephraim Mogale, Limpopo Province, South Africa. A Chi-Square (χ2) test is performed to test for equal proportions of annual expenditures and association between expenditures, characteristics of famers with gender. ANOVA is performed on different source effects (gender) to compare difference between variables. A Stepwise Discriminant analysis is also used to investigate the drivers (variables) that play the most important role on the different clusters of expenditure. Total expenses, vaccines, feed and supplements, total cattle, number of cows and total sheep are identified as the main drivers that play the most important role in distinguishing the difference between cluster groups of expenditure. The mean total expenses incurred by male farmers are estimated at R1 243, while those of women are R834. Although there is no significant difference between gender and individual expenditure items, the study reveals that in general, men spent more than women and this is influenced by the size of animal herd.

Aus. J. Bus. Sco S. & IT. Vol 2(3), July 2016, P 190-201


Gender; Expenditure; Livestock; Financial Resources; South Africa

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